In the chemical soup that encompasses our bodies and our biochemistry, oxidants and antioxidants are at constant war. called a supplementN-Acetylcystein(we'll abbreviate it to NAC) has the potential to make a huge difference in the way we process toxins. Of course I had heard of NAC beforepunishment/Rescuer for people who come to the ER with an overdose of the worst things, acetaminophen (Tylenol or Paracetamol).
If you decide to have a whole bottle (or much, much less withAlcohol- even the upper limits of a normal daily dose can damage your liver when combined with alcohol), you may feel nauseous immediately, but then recover and forget about it - until a few days later, when accumulated liver cell death sets in and A rotting liver makes you very, very sick, and nothing but a liver transplant will save you. Otherwise you die a pretty horrible death. Livers are vital, we don't have backups, bypass machines, mechanical livers or liver-like dialysis machines. apparently there is56,000 emergency department visits per yearof Tylenol overdoses in the US and 100 deaths.
Ok meSomeone shows up at the ER with a Tylenol overdose, get a level four or more hours after ingestion and record the level and hours after ingestion on a handy chart. Above the dark line in the graph? Welcome to the world of N-acetylcysteine, a nasty compound that's usually given with fruit juice but still makes some people vomit. Administer a loading dose of 150 mg/kg followed by 70 mg/kg for 17 more doses. If you cannot maintain the dose, it should be repeated. During this time, the psychiatrist is usually called to the emergency room to determine if it is safe to let the person go or if there is a serious problem.SuicideTry that requires more intervention. It's surprisingly easy to accidentally overdose on Tylenol, given that acetaminophen is in a million over-the-counter medications, as well as prescription pain relievers Percocet and Vicodin, etc. 4000mg per day is the upper limit of "safe" (without alcohol) - if you are unlucky, you can get acute liver failure with as little as 7800mg.
The treatment is as simple as it is magical: possible fulminant liver failure on the one hand, and leaving the hospital without any problems on the other. And the treatment has everything to do with the master of the body.antioxidant, glutathione. It appears that a metabolite of Tylenol, NAPQI, kills liver cells like Gangbuster. Glutathione can bind to it and render it harmless, but once you run out of glutathione, the leftover NAPQI does its nasty work. That's where N-acetylcysteine (NAC) comes in - it's a ready-made precursor to glutathione, so your liver can be fueled to fight NAPQI.
Well, look at the Wikipedia article. In addition to treating mucus build-up in cystic fibrosis, NAC is also used in acetaminophen overdose, possibly reducing renal contrast toxicity (although this does not appear to be the case), interstitial lung disease, and reducing noise-induced hearing loss, slowing pancreatic beta cell destruction, Curing hangovers and reducing flu symptoms. But of course none of that matters to me. As a specialist, medical convention requires me to stick to the brain and keep my little nose away from other parts of the body...but NAC has some interesting properties in the mind, too.
As usual, it's all about glutamate,the excitatory neurotransmitter of doom. In short, too much glutamate around is for your neurons like whipping your horse until it is killed. Horses and their brains need time to graze, relax and eat proper food, and sometimes a good massage and brushing. Well, NAC seems to be able to get into some tricky areas of the brain and do amazing things.Managementof glutamate. A number of fascinating studies have appeared in recent years using NAC alone or as an adjunct treatment for some difficult problems.psychiatricConditions. Some of these have been decent multi-center randomized controlled trials. The real deal.
These difficult conditions? Trichotillomania (compulsive hair pulling that is common and extraordinarily difficult to treat – decades of research has yielded results as effective as the NAC study!). Schizophrenia.Bipolar Depression(Another very difficult and disabling condition that doesn't respond well totherapyor medicine, and the condition I have seen responds best to NAC in my own practice). There is an ongoing study on thisTable of contents. Studies range from 2,000 to 4,800 mg daily of the capsules (better tolerated than the ER drink, which is a much higher dose overall), and most studies reported more adverse events and side effectsPlaceboarm than in the treatment arm.
Many of the studies lasted up to 6 months, which is a lifetime for randomized controlled clinical trials, and all studies had positive effects. That's pretty amazing considering pharmaceutical companies have undoubtedly spent millions upon millions on huntingbipolar Depression, for example without showing much (there is quetiapine,fluoxetineand olanzapine and fluoxetine with modest effect and many side effects). Another nice little study used NAC to do thisreduce cocaine cravings- again, something for which there really is no effective FDA-approved medical treatment.
Why would a master antioxidant precursor have anything to do with glutamate in the brain? The mechanism is a bit hysterically complicated, so I'll quote from the article on trichotillomania:
[NAC] is a hepatoprotective antioxidant that is converted to cysteine, a substrate for the glutamate-cysteine antiporter. This antiporter allows cysteine uptake, which causes reverse glutamate transport into the extracellular space, thereby stimulating inhibitory metabotropic glutamate receptors and thus reducing synaptic release of glutamate. Restoration of extracellular glutamateconcentrationin the nucleus accumbens seems to block the restitution ofcompulsive behaviors.
Scientific language translation: NAC helps prevent excess (and toxic) glutamate from being in the wrong place at the wrong time. It helps us turn that brain to pasture for rest and recovery.
What are the disadvantages of NAC? I can think of two things that might be important: First, NAC is a mucolytic that thins mucuscutdisulfide bonds. I suspect it might increase the risks - you don't want to run out of mucus. The slime is important. Paul Jaminet mentions this problem and links to a studyHere. Also, cutting disulfide bonds in the body is what triggers this bad inflammationHomocysteineit's supposed to, resulting in crusty collagen and inelastic elastin in the arteries (which would possibly first show up as high blood pressure).
Of course, no hunter-gatherer consumed 2 grams of NAC per day. It's not evolutionary psychiatry. But it appears to have the potential to replicate the natural glutamate situation in a's brain, perhaps with some downsidesLow stress lifewith many suitable minerals and micronutrients. Hey, maybe the lack of tons of carbs on top of thatInflammatory diet for rodents. or someKetosis.
We live a modern life: some brains are already going in the wrong direction. It would certainly be worth studying NAC further to have more information and giving it a try in stubborn or stubborn conditions that significantly affect performance in my opinion.
Copyright Emily Deans, MD
What is a NAC solution? ›
What Is Network Access Control (NAC)? Network access control (NAC) solutions enable an organization to restrict unauthorized or non-compliant devices and users from accessing the corporate network. This helps to ensure that all devices connected to the corporate network are compliant with corporate security policies.What is NAC in study? ›
NAC is an amino acid that contains thiol group. It has been used for the treatment of acetaminophen toxicity (20). N-Acetyl-pbenzoquinonimine is a potent oxidative metabolite of acetaminophen, resulting in hepatotoxicity, if it is not reduced by glutathione.What are the four steps of the NAC process? ›
- Know Your Endpoints.
- Check Update your Directory System.
- Determine and Apply Permissions.
- Keep Everything Updated.
NAC systems can play a vital role in automatically identifying devices as they connect to the network and providing access that does not potentially compromise security. For example, when a personal mobile device connects, it can be granted access only to the Internet and not to any corporate resources.What does NAC stand for? ›
Network Access Control (NAC)How do you make NAC solution? ›
To prepare, dissolve 50 mg of N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) powder (Sigma-Aldrich A8199) in 10 mL of Neurobasal Medium (Gibco/Life Technologies 21103). (The solution will be yellowish.) Filter through a 0.22-μm filter.What is NAC approved for? ›
N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is the mainstay of therapy for acetaminophen toxicity. NAC has Federal and Drug Administration (FDA) approval for the treatment of potentially hepatotoxic doses of acetaminophen (APAP), and it is almost 100% effective if given within 8 hours post-ingestion.What are the three key activities performed by NAC? ›
- Installs AV software.
- Compares the signature of the file with a list of known virus signatures.
- Configures the firewall.
- Profiles all connected devices.
N-acetylcysteine has a demonstrated role as an adjunctive therapy in psychotic and affective disorders as a treatment to reduce symptoms of Bipolar Affective Disorder, Major Depressive Disorder and Schizophrenia. However, its potential as a rapidly acting anti-suicidal agent has not yet been assessed.How does NAC work for mental health? ›
NAC lowers inflammatory chemicals, called cytokines, within the brain. Inflammation may play a role in conditions like depression and schizophrenia. Lowering glutamate levels. Glutamate is a chemical messenger in the body.
When should NAC be given? ›
Background. Intravenous NAC is the antidote to treat paracetamol overdose and is virtually 100% effective in preventing liver damage when given within 8 hours of the overdose.What is NAC in text? ›
Not a chance
People typically use NAC when replying to questions or requests, to say there is no way that thing is going to happen. For example, if your brother asks you to clean his room, you could reply with "NAC, bro."
National Advisory Council - BYU Marriott School of Business.What is the best NAC solution? ›
- #1 Cisco ISE (Identity Services Engine) Cisco ISE (Identity Services Engine) was ranked as the #1 Network Access Control (NAC) Software Tool for 2022. ...
- #2 Forescout Platform. ...
- #3 Aruba ClearPass. ...
- #4 Fortinet FortiNAC. ...
- #5 macmon Network Access Control.
The best known NAC formulation in the US is Mucomyst™ (or the generic version thereof). Although it is commonly administered orally for treatment of acetaminophen overdose, it has a strong, disagreeable flavor and therefore is usually mixed with fruit juice or a soft drink before consumption.
As we discussed in a recent response to two citizen petitions, the FDA has determined that NAC is excluded from the dietary supplement definition under the FD&C Act because NAC was approved as a new drug before it was marketed as a dietary supplement or as a food.What does NAC agent do? ›
Cisco Network Admission Control (NAC) Agent provides network admission control and compliance enforcement, user authentication tools, bandwidth and traffic filtering controls. This technology resides on the client`s machine, authenticates the user, and scans for the required patches and software.What is a NAC product? ›
Gartner defines network access control (NAC) as technologies that enable organizations to implement policies for controlling access to corporate infrastructure by both user-oriented devices and Internet of Things (IoT) devices.How does a NAC device work? ›
NAC typically consists of a two-stage process: authentication and authorization. If either step fails, then the user or device is blocked and quarantined. During authentication, the NAC system prompts the user to enter credentials in order to verify their identity as an authorized user.Why has NAC been taken off the market? ›
As we discussed in a recent response to two citizen petitions, the FDA has determined that NAC is excluded from the dietary supplement definition under the FD&C Act because NAC was approved as a new drug before it was marketed as a dietary supplement or as a food.
Why is NAC being removed from the market? ›
But in May 2021, Amazon announced that it was eliminating all NAC-containing supplements from its digital shelves, citing the FDA's new position that these are basically unlawful drugs.How much NAC should I take to detox? ›
Between 600–1,800 milligrams of a NAC supplement daily seems to be effective against many conditions; 600-milligram capsules taken two to three times a day is the recommended dosage to start with. There's evidence that 2,000 milligrams is safe for most adults.Where is NAC used? ›
As a prescription drug, doctors use NAC to treat acetaminophen overdose. It may also help break up mucus in people with some lung diseases, like chronic bronchitis. As a supplement, some people use NAC to try to protect the liver. There's evidence it can help prevent kidney or neurologic damage caused by some drugs.How does NAC work for OCD? ›
NAC binds to glutamate, an excitatory neurotransmitter usually elevated in OCD patients. The binding of glutamate and NAC offers relief from OCD symptoms as it reduces the circulation of glutamate levels.What is NAC evaluation? ›
Bookmark. Network Access Control (NAC) solutions are complex and heavily dependent on the capabilities of your network infrastructure. A NAC Readiness Assessment can help you determine where you are and how to plan and deploy a NAC solution.What products have NAC in them? ›
NAC is made by the human liver by altering the amino acid cysteine and can be found in high-protein foods, such as meat, fish, seafood, chicken or turkey. Minor sources are eggs, whole-grain products such as breads and cereals, and some plants including broccoli, onions, and legumes.What does NAC come from? ›
N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) comes from the amino acid L-cysteine. Amino acids are building blocks of proteins. NAC has many uses and is an FDA approved drug. N-acetyl cysteine is an antioxidant that might play a role in preventing cancer.What is a NAC on a fire alarm panel? ›
Notification appliances are controlled by the fire alarm control unit (FACU) using a notification appliance circuit (NAC). Each notification appliance has a diode in it that only allows current to pass through it in one direction (think of it like a one way valve).What is NAC configuration? ›
NAC process (for example, access to the Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) server, remediation server, audit server). The NAD triggers the posture validation process at the following times: When a new session starts. When the revalidation timer expires. When you enter a system administrator command.What is NAC module? ›
Each NAC module allows switching of an external power supply, such as a 24 VDC regulated power source or audio amplifier to a group of notification appliances. The notification appliance circuit can be wired either Class A or B.